Organic City Project : Moving into a Culture of Sustainability
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Types of aquaculture

There are many different methods of farming fish. Described below are both sustainable and less sustainable types of aquaculture:

More Sustainable

Ecological Aquaculture – Farming system that preserves and enhances the environments where it is located while at the same time maintaining productivity, using ecosystems thinking.

Organic Aquaculture – Focuses on the integration and connectedness of all parts of the operation including the animals, input of nutrients, the environment and the wastes produced. Follows set of organic standards that other certified producers follow.

Polyculture and Integrated Aquaculture – Farming method where diverse organisms are raised within the same system each operating within its own unique niche to contribute to the entire system. Wastes from one organism are used as inputs to another.
See an innovative example at

Recirculating Systems – Land based tanks with constantly flowing water and highly controlled environment. Can be installed in many locations. Ideal for urban aquaculture.

Inland Pond Culture – The earliest type of aquaculture, this is the most common system used to farm freshwater fish. Consists of freshwater ponds stocked with fish.

Less Sustainable

Mariculture – Saltwater aquaculture including coastal and offshore operations in addition to saltwater ponds and tank systems. Often uses netpens or cages to grow fish.

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- by Rob Freudenberg


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